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By Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, H. Lyn Miles

Humans generally imagine that animals are psychologically like themselves (anthropomorphism), and describe what animals do in narratives (anecdotes) that aid those mental interpretations. this is often the 1st ebook to guage the importance and value of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for knowing animals. various views are awarded in considerate, severe essays by way of historians, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists, behaviorists, biologists, primatologists, and ethologists. the character of anthropomorphism and anecdotal research is tested; social, cultural, and historic attitudes towards them are awarded; and clinical attitudes are appraised. Authors supply attention-grabbing in-depth descriptions and analyses of various species of animals, together with octopi, nice apes, monkeys, canines, sea lions, and, in fact, people. issues approximately, and suggestions for, reviews of numerous mental features of animals are mentioned, together with psychological country attribution, intentionality, cognition, cognizance, self-consciousness, and language.

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Nonetheless the assumption that all the qualities that make up mindfrom memory and primitive < previous page page_16 If you like this book, buy it! next page > < previous page page_17 next page > Page 17 attachment to reasoning, social perception, and altruismcould be ranked on a single continuous line pervaded his theoretical writing. Through the late 1870s and 1880s Romanes discussed mental evolution in public lectures, articles, correspondence, and books: Animal Intelligence (1882), Mental Evolution in Animals (1883), and Mental Evolution in Man (1888).

Japanese reports about animals' motives, personalities, and lives were, in their Western colleagues' eyes, highly anthropomorphic. As rationality is so central to the Western debate about human uniqueness, it is not surprising that the strongest invectives against anthropomorphism are about attributing rationality to other animals. Emotionality for the Westerner comprises a subset of arguments about rationality and, as mentioned, there is not universal agreement about it, even among scientists.

Love approbation or praise; and a dog carrying a basket for his master exhibits in a high degree selfcomplacency or pride. There can, I think, be no doubt that a dog feels shame . . and something very like modesty when begging too often for food. A great dog scorns the snarling of a little dog, and this may be called magnanimity. Several observers have stated that monkeys certainly dislike being laughed at; and they sometimes invent imaginary offences. In the Zoological Gardens I saw a baboon who always got into a furious rage when his keeper took out a letter or book and read it aloud to him .

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