By Simon R. Saunders
An essential resource of knowledge for training and aspiring instant conversation engineers, in addition to for college kids at postgraduate and senior undergraduate degrees. This publication offers a basic grounding within the rules of antennas and propagation with out over the top recourse to arithmetic. It additionally equips the reader with useful prediction options for the layout and research of a truly wide variety of universal instant verbal exchange structures.
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Extra resources for Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems
Together , and " are known as the constitutive parameters of the medium. 2. 1 gives expressions for a and k which apply in both lossless and lossy media. ". If dominates, the material is a good conductor; if is very small, the material is a good insulator or good dielectric. 1: Attenuation constant, wave number, wave impedance, wavelength and phase velocity for plane waves in lossy media (after [Balanis, 89]) n ¼ ck=! " Wavelength l [m] 2 k 2 % pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ! " Phase velocity v [m sÀ1] ! k 1 % pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ " Wave number k [mÀ1] pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ % !
1 A cellular operator is interested in providing GSM coverage at 900 MHz in an international airport. Surveys show that approximately 650 000 passengers make use of the airport every year, of which it is believed that around 80% are mobile phone users. 14. 1 The following assumptions apply for this airport: (a) Busy-hour trafﬁc takes about 25% of the total daily trafﬁc. (b) The trafﬁc in the airport is distributed in the following proportions: 70% is carried in the terminal building, 20% in the pier and 10% in the car park.
The upper limit for the useful data rate, or channel capacity C [bit sÀ1] achieved in a channel of bandwidth B [Hz] at a signal power to noise power ratio S/N was predicted by [Shannon, 48] as: S C ¼ log2 1 þ ð1:9Þ N This implies that, for an ideal system, the bit error rate can be reduced to zero by the application of appropriate coding schemes, provided the user data rate is less than the channel capacity. Shannon did not, however, provide any constructive techniques for creating such codes and the ﬁve decades following his original paper saw researchers expending very signiﬁcant effort on constructing codes which approached ever closer to this limit.