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By Carroll Moulton

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Because these light plows could only cut shallow furrows in the soil, Greek farmers sometimes had to use pickaxes or hoes to dig deeper furrows before planting crops. When a field was ready for planting, farmers sowed seeds either by throwing them from side to side or placing them in single rows. Then they covered the seeds with soil using a hoe or a rakelike tool called a harrow. Farmers pulled weeds by hand or used a sickle to cut the stems. At harvest time, farmers cut the stalks of grain with sickles, tied them in bundles, and carried them away for threshing—the process of separating the grain from the stalks.

Many large farms had elaborate systems of crop rotation to keep soils fertile. The normal rotation cycle included a fallow period, during which time the land was left unplanted. Farmers usually continued to plow fallow fields two or three times a year to kill weeds and to help the soil retain moisture. After the fallow period, farmers would plant one season of a root crop, followed by a season of a grain crop, and finally a season of mixed grasses. In this way, the soil could replenish itself over time because not all plants took the same nutrients from the soil.

Lable for riding. Alexander thought Ottawa ^ took command of the horse. Discovering thai Bucephalus was afraid of his shadow, Alexander pointid tht hotse towards the sun. He talked to the horse, stroked and aimed him. Alexander even taught Bucephalus to kneel down so he could mount him easily while wearing armor, Bucephalus was Alexander's horse for 20 years and accompanied him on his conquests. When Bucephalus dfed* te was hortoimJ with a mg» nificent funeral * strait narrow channel that connects two bodies of water * satrap provincial governor in ancient Persia * pharaoh ruler of ancient Egypt * oracle priest or priestess through whom a god is believed to speak; also the location (such as a shrine) where such utterances are made 22 took command of the cavalry and played an important role in defeating the Greeks.

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