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By Pavel Polian

In the course of his reign over the previous Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin oversaw the pressured resettlement of six million humans -- a maniacal ardour that he used for social engineering. The Soviets weren't the 1st to thrust resettlement on its inhabitants -- an immense attribute of totalitarian structures -- yet by way of sheer numbers, applied sciences used to deport humans and the lawlessness which observed it, Stalin's approach used to be the main impressive. Six million humans of alternative social, ethnic, and professions have been resettled earlier than Stalin's loss of life. Even this day, the aftermath of such deportations mostly predetermines occasions which happen within the northern Caucasus, Crimea, the Baltic republics, Moldavia, and western Ukraine. Polian's quantity is the 1st try to comprehensively study the historical past of pressured and semivoluntary inhabitants activities inside or prepared by way of the Soviet Union. Contents diversity from the early Twenties to the rehabilitation of repressed nationalities within the Nineties facing inner (kulaks, ethnic and political deportations) and overseas compelled migrations (German internees and occupied territories). An abundance of proof, figures, tables, maps, and an exhaustively-detailed annex will function very important resources for extra researches.

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25 Besides, Turkish nationals were exiled (at least 10 thousand people, with many Crimean Tatars among them). According to S. Nelipovich, they were deported to the Olonets, Voronezh, Kaluga,Yaroslavl, and Kazan Gubs. In his turn, E. , and—especially— the region of Baku, where a 5,000-capacity camp with horrific conditions was created for the deportees. Naturally, Jews were not forgotten either. In 1914–1915, 250–350 thousand Jews were deported from the territories of Poland, Lithuania, and Belorussia into inland Russian gubernias; and they were allowed only 24 hours to get prepared.

There followed an agreement with Romania (22 November 1940), and subsequently two more treaties with the USSR (both signed on 10 January 1941, the first concerning Germans from Estonia and Latvia, and the other on the resettlement of Lithuanians, Russians and Belorussians from the Memel and Suwalki regions). Then it was Italy’s turn again (31 August, on the resettlement of Volksdeutsche from the province of Leibach), and eventually came an accord with Croatia (30 November 1942). 47 By the time that Lodz was liberated by the Red Army,48 and the EWZ was thus dissolved, its register comprised files for 1,055,400 ethnic Germans, who were divided into 16 categories.

51 To start with, special “corridors” that divided the mass of German settlements—to the east of Warsaw and in southern Poland, in Beskidy—were to be cleansed and appropriated. However, the territories that Hitler set out to appropriate for the sake of “tomorrow” and “the day after tomorrow” had to be cleansed from local residents for one thing: partly (when the Slavic population was implied), or totally (as far as Jewish people were concerned). In the latter case, it was no longer “ethnic cleansing” that was meant, as in the former case, but genocide: it was Polish Jews from Wartergau that became the first to be transported to death camps.

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