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This is because the composition of the mixture of species changes with the pH. 29815) /. 25 / .

Biochemical Thermodynumics: Applicutions of Muthemuticu. by Robert A. Alberty Copyright 02006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1- 1) where S is the entropy of the system, p , is the chemical potential of species j , n, is the amount of species j, and N is the number of different species (1,2,3). This fundamental equation shows that T, P, and {nj}are the independent variables for the Gibbs energy of a chemical reaction system. The thermodynamic properties of a chemical reaction system are interrelated in several ways.

S. Pitzer, Activity Coefficients in Electrolyte Solutions, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1991. 12. R. A. Alberty, Effect of temperature on standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation of reactants at specified pH and ionic strength and apparent equilibrium constants of biochemical reactions, J. Phys. Chem. 105 B, 7865-7870 (2001). ) 13. R. A. Alberty, Standard molar entropies, standard entropies of formation, and standard transformed entropies of formation in the thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, J.

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